Throughout most of Japan's history it has been closed to the outside world refusing to open its borders to foreigners. Regional warlords, protected by Samurai warriors, often arose to become Shogun, a position more powerful than the emperor. In the mid 18th century, Japan directed its efforts toward industrialization, modernization and increased militarization. The United States declared war in 1941 after the surprise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Japan surrendered soon afterward. After surrendering Japan was occupied by the Allied Forces marking the first time in the nation's history it had been occupied by a foreign power. Today, despite suffering massive losses during World War II and possessing very little natural resources, Japan has become an economic and technological powerhouse. Japan is a remarkably beautiful country steeped in proud ancient tradition and culture. The first confirmed novel, The Tale of Genji, was written in 1007 by a Japanese noble woman, Murasaki Shikibu. Japan's literacy rate is almost 100 percent. Average life expectancy in Japan is one of the highest in the world. More than 70 percent of Japan consists of mountains, including more than 200 volcanoes. Mt. Fuji, the tallest mountain in Japan, is an active volcano. The Japanese call their country Nihon or Nippon, which means origin of the sun. A fascinating program exploring the history, people and culture of the Land of the Rising Sun.